Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Gnosticism in Corinth


I have published the books of Jacob Watts, of which I am the editor, as kindle books on Amazon. The Field of Ghosts and Memoirs of the Destruction are works of historical fiction that take place in Rome, Jerusalem, and other locations around the Mediterranean, during the first century AD. Jacob imagined the period through narratives left by four people who lived in the final years of the reign of the emperor Nero and into the reigns of Vespasian and Titus. The narrators were witnesses to some of the most important historical events of the period, including the great fire of AD 64, the Jewish revolt of AD 66 to 70, and the Roman civil wars from AD 68 to 69.

I have recently added genealogical tables of the Julio-Claudians (the first Roman imperial family) and of the Herodians, of which Queen Berenice of Cilicia, a principal character in Memoirs of the Destruction, was a member.

In working with the somewhat disorganized notes Jacob left with my mother in 1954, I needed to assemble a library of books he himself had consulted in constructing he narratives. I also attempted to read books by those scholars under whom and with whom Jacob studied at TΓΌbingen and later at Marburg, Germany, before and after World War II. I also received many valuable recommendations from Professor Earle Ellis, who was at the New Brunswick Theological Seminary when I first met him and who later founded the International Reference Library for Biblical Research. I have recently donated most of my theological and historical library to the Theological Book Network of Grand Rapids, Michigan, a charitable organization that sends donated books to seminaries and libraries around the world, particularly institutions operating in poorer countries where resources for building libraries are difficult to come by. 

One of my researchers asked me which book was my favorite of those I read for the editing assignment that I gave myself, which because of other responsibilities has taken more than thirty years. I answered that the book that moved me from having no thought of doing anything at all with Jacob’s notes towards a commitment to complete what I saw as his goal was Gnosticism in Corinth (German: Die Gnosis in Korinth). This book was written by a German theologian, Walter Schmithals, someone mentioned several times by Jacob in his correspondence and whom he apparently knew when they were both studying at Marburg. The book allowed me to see, for the first time, how early Christianity fit into the belief systems of the Greco-Roman world in the mid- to late-first century AD. Other books have given such perspectives just as well, but when I read Schmithals I saw for the first time what I must do with Jacob’s notes. I believe that Jacob’s work in India and southeast Asia, dealing with people he loved but who had grown up with very different religious backgrounds, gave him an interest in what it was like for apostles, like Paul and Peter, to speak to people who had a wide range of religious backgrounds as they traveled across the northern Mediterranean as far as and perhaps further than Rome.

Jacob wanted his readers not only to enter the ancient world but also the ancient mind. He did not want to sanitize the period to make it palatable to modern sensibilities, but he was equally determined not to demonize people whose practices and beliefs were very different from our own. He saw the danger of historical fiction presenting nothing more than a dress bell, as Marguerite Yourcenar warned against, with modern people walking through the ancient world as if we could be beamed back, like a Star Trek crew, and permitted to put on the costumes and walk through the buildings of the ancients without having to shed modern prejudices and thought patterns. He knew that Jews, Christians, worshipers of Isis, and holders of other beliefs and practices of the first century, had many more things in common in their daily lives with each other than any of them have with us.

Judaism and Christianity were in the early stages of a sometimes painful separation that would continue well into the second century and much longer in some places, with members of families divided by their acceptance or rejection of the new Christian perspectives, but often remaining close nevertheless. Three of the four principal narrators in the two novels had Jewish backgrounds, but only one of the narrators knew much of the history of Judaism or its temple practice in Jerusalem. That narrator, whose account is in Memoirs of The Destruction, Mahli the son of the priest Zabdi, struggled with how to deal with the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in AD 70. He eventually associated himself with the teachers who assembled after the revolt in Jamnia under the great rabbi, Yohanan ben Zakkai. These teachers set rabbinic Judaism on the path that it has held since. Mahli did not approve of his sister’s acceptance of Christianity in Rome, yet they did not allow this to come between them and remained in loving contact throughout their lives. Isidora, the first narrator in The Field of Ghosts, was born a slave in the household of a Roman senatorial family and grew up a pagan, eventually becoming a priestess of Isis. Her adoption of Christianity under the influence of a fellow slave did not involve a bitter separation from her pagan beliefs and she sometimes interpreted the Christian message through concepts she had acquired in the worship of an Egyptian goddess. Thus, the narrators varied considerably in how they understood Jewish and Christian perspectives and how they fit those perspectives into the world views they had grown up with.

I do not know if it would be said by Jacob, but I came to see the early period of Christianity, more than two centuries before it would begin to have official acceptance, as the best period in the religion’s history. The proponents of the teachings of Jesus and his followers had to work to spread their belief, and they had to consider how people of different backgrounds would interpret words that did not always have the same meaning for those speaking as they did for those listening. I am not religious myself—in fact I am an atheist—but as I read the New Testament in Greek in order to understand how the evangelists thought and spoke, I could not help but admire how these tireless messengers always had dust on their feet as they moved from village to village, city to city, region to region. They were trying to spread a message they saw as crucial to surviving the end of time, which many of them believed was imminent. They were not trying, and would not have been able, to impose their beliefs on anyone. They had no political power and sought none. They had to be persuasive, rather than dictatorial, and they had to set examples. They could ill afford discrepancies between their public and private lives.

Taking us back into this world also required that Jacob show that there were trajectories of belief in Christianity and Judaism that did not survive to modern times, or sometimes even beyond the first or second century. The characters he imagined do not always say things that a modern Christian or Jew would find acceptable. That, more than any other reason, was why I had to learn about the time, because I did not want to misunderstand what a statement, such as the description of Jesus as a demigod, meant in first-century Rome. Centralization of the control of much of the Christian world in Rome and of rabbinic Judaism in Babylon (Bagdad) in late antiquity led to standardization of belief, as a result of which other early concepts withered and disappeared, only to be resurrected by modern scholarship of the sort in which Jacob once studied.

I have begun the process of digitizing Jacob’s notes, but that will take time to complete. In the meantime, the following list includes the books Jacob referred to, as well as those I consulted in working with his notes. Although most of these books are now being distributed by the Theological Book Network, there are a few, such as Gnosticism in Corinth, that I cannot bring myself to part with. Just having that and some other books on a shelf reminds me of minor epiphanies that were important in realizing Jacob’s objectives, which takes me briefly back to a world I do not want ever to leave entirely. 

Adkins, Lesley, and Adkins, Roy A. (1996). Dictionary of Roman Religion. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Aharoni, Yohanan (1979). The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Aharoni, Yohanan, and Avi-Yonah, Michael (1977). The Macmillan Bible Atlas. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Albright, W.F. (1949). The Archaeology of Palestine. Baltimore: Penguin Books. 

Allbutt, T. Clifford (1921). Greek Medicine in Rome.  London: Macmillan & Co.

Alon, Gedalyahu (1977). Jews, Judaism and the Classical World. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press. 

Alon, Gedaliah (1989). The Jews in Their Land in the Talmudic Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

American School of Classical Studies at Athens (1954). Ancient Corinth: A Guide to the Excavations.

Anderson, Graham (1984). Ancient Fiction: The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World. London: Groom Helm.

Anderson, James C. (1997). Roman Architecture and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Anderson, William J., and Spiers, R. Phene (1927). The Architecture of Ancient Greece. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.

Argall, Randal A., Bow, Beverly A., and Werline, Rodney A. (eds.). For a Later Generation. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press.

Argyle, A.W. (i1963). The Gospel According to Matthew. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Arnheim, M.T.W. (1977). Aristocracy in Greek Society. London: Thames & Hudson.

Arnold, W.T. (1914). Roman Provincial Administration. Chicago: Ares Publishers.

Asch, Sholem (1943). The Apostle. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Avi-Yonah (1961). The Herodian Period. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 

Bachofen, J.J. (1967). Myth, Religion, and the Mother Right. Princeton: Bollingen Series.

Bainton, Roland H. (1952). The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Bainton, Roland H. (1973). Women of the Reformation in France and England. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Baldwin, Barry (1973). Studies in Lucian. Toronto: Hakkert.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1963). Roman Women: Their History and Habits. New York: The John Day Co.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1969). Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. London: Phoenix Press.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1979).Romans and Aliens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Baly, Denis (1937). The Geography of the Bible. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Bammel, Ernst, and Moule, C.F.D. (1985). Jesus and the Politics of His Day. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barclay, John M.G. (1996). Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora from Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barker, Ernest (1958). The Politics of Aristotle. London: Oxford University Press.

Barker, John W. (1966). Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Barker, Phil (1981). The Armies and Enemies of Imperial Rome. West Sussex: Wargames Research Group.

Barnes, Timothy D. (1981). Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Barret, Anthony (1996). Agrippina: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Early Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press. 

Barton, Carlin (1993). The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Barton, Tamsyn S. (1994). Ancient Astrology. London: Routledge.

Barton, Tamsyn S. (2002). Power and Knowledge: Astrology, Physiognomics, and Medicine under the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bartsch, Shadi (1994). Actors in the Audience: Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to Hadrian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Bauckham, Richard (1990). Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark.

Bauckham, Richard (1995). The Book of Acts in Its First Century Setting. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Bauer, Walter (1971). Orthodoxy and Hersey in Earliest Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 

Beacham, Richard C. (1992). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Beard, Mary, and North, John (1990). Pagan Priests. London: Duckworth.

Beare, W. (1951). The Roman Stage: A Short History of Latin Drama in the Time of the Republic. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Becatti, Giovanni et al. (1967). Mithraism in Ostia. Northwestern University Press.

Bechmann, Roland (1990). Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages. New York: Paragon House.

Beck, Lois (1991). Nomad: A Year in the Life of a Qashqa’I Tribesman in Iran. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Becker, W.A. (1899). Charicles or Illustrations of the Private Life of the Ancient Greeks. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

Beinart, Haim (1992). Atlas of Medieval Jewish History. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bell, H. Idris (1957). Cults & Creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Chicago: Ares Publishers Inc.

Ben-Dov, Meir (1982). In the Shadow of the Temple: The Discovery of Ancient Jerusalem. New York: Harper & Row.

Berman, Harold J. (1983). Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge:

Berquist, Jon L. (1989). Judaism in Persia’s Shadow. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock.

Bickerman, Elias J. (1980). Chronology of the Ancient World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Bickerman, Elias J. (1988). The Jews in the Greek Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Bieber, Margarete (1971). The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Binns, L. Elliott (1967). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Medieval Papacy. London: Archon Books.

Bishop, W.J. (1960). The Early History of Surgery.  New York: Barnes & Noble.

Blake, Marion Elizabeth (1973). Roman Construction in Italy from Nerva through the Antonines. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Bokser, Baruch M. (1984). The Origins of the Seder: The Passover Rite and Early Rabbinic Judaism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bonner, Stanley F. (1977). Education in Ancient Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1969). Early Christian Experience. New York: Harper & Row.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1969). Paul. New York: Harper & Row.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1975). Jesus of Nazareth. New York: Harper & Row.

Bourguet, Pierre du (1965). Early Christian Painting. New York: Compass Books. 

Bousset, Wilhelm (1970). Kyrio Christos. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Boylan, Patrick (1922). Thoth: The Hermes of Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bradley, K.R. (1978). Suetonius’ Life of Nero: An Historical Commentary. Brussels: Latomus Revue d’Etudes Latines.

Bradley, K.R. (1984). Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brandon, S.G.F. (1967). Jesus and the Zealots. New York: Scribner’s.

Brandon, S.G.F. (1978). The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church. London: SPCK.

Branston, Brian (1974). The Lost Gods of England. New York: Oxford University Press.

Braudel, Fernand (1967). Capitalism and the Material Life, 1400-1800. New York: Harper Colophon.

Breasted, James H. (1940). Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Brooke, Christopher (1978). The Saxon and Norman Kings: Third Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Brooten, Bernadette J. (1982). Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue. Brown Judaic Studies 36. Chico, California: Scholars Press.

Brothwell, Don and Patricia (1969). Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Brown, Peter (1967). Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brown, Peter (1982). Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. London: Faber & Faber.

Brown, Peter (1988). The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.

Brown, Raymond (1979). The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York: Paulist Press.

Bruce, F.F. (1969). The Acts of the Apostles. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans.

Bruce, F.F. (1985). The Pauline Circle. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B Eerdmans.

Buchler, Adolph (1968). Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety from 70 B.C.E. to 70 C.E. New York: Ktav Publishing House.

Buckland, W.W. (1908, 1970). The Roman Law of Slavery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1955). Theology of the New Testament. New York: Scribner’s.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1976). History of the Synoptic Tradition. New York: Harper & Row.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1985).The Second Letter to the Corinthians. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1987). Faith and Understanding. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

Burckhardt, Jacob (1949). The Age of Constantine the Great. New York: Doubleday & Co.

Burkert, Walter (1983). Homo Necans. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cagnat, R. (1911, 1975). Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes. Chicago: Ares Publishers.

Cameron, Alan (1973). Porphyrius the Charioteer.  Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Cameron, Averil, and Hall, Stuart G. (1999). Eusebius: Life of Constantine. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Campbell, Joseph (1955). The Mysteries. Princeton: Bollingen Series XXX.

Cantarella, Eva (1992). Bisexuality in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale University of Press.

Carcopino, Jerome (1940). Daily Life in Ancient Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Casson, Lionel (1973). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Casson, Lionel (1974). Travel in the Ancient World. Toronto: Hakkert.

Chadwick, Henry (1976). Priscillian of Avila: The Occult and the Charismatic in the Early Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Chadwick, Owen (1977). The Reformation. Middlesex, England: Penguin.

Champlin, Edward (1980). Fronto and Antonine Rome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Charlesworth, James H. (1977). The Odes of Solomon. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press.

Cheesman, G.L. (1914, 1975). The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army. Chicago: Ares Press.

Cheyney, Edward P. (1962). The Rise of Modern Europe: The Dawn of a New Era, 1250-1453.  New York: Harper & Row.

Chilver, G.E.F. (1979). A Historical Commentary on Tacitus’ Histories I and II; (1985). A Historical Commentary on Tacitus’ Histories IV and V. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Christian, William A. (1992). Moving Crucifixes in Modern Spain.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Clauss, Manfred (2000). The Roman Cult of Mithras. New York: Routledge.

Clinton, Henry Fynes (1845, but reprinted). Fasti Romani: The Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople, 2 vols. New York: Burt Franklin.

Coarelli, Filippo (1984). Greek and Roman Jewelry. London: Cassell.

Cochrane, Charles Norris (1977). Christianity and Classical Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cohen, Shaye J.D. (1989). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 

Collier, Mark, and Manley, Bill (1998). How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Collins, Minta (2000). Medieval Herbals: The Illustrative Traditions. London: University of Toronto Press.

Comotti, Giovanni (1979). Music in Greek and Roman Culture. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Conzelman, Hans (1957). The Theology of St. Luke. New York: Harper & Row.

Cooke, Harold P. (1931). Osiris: A Study in Myths, Mysteries and Religion. Chicago: Ares Publishers.

Copleston, F.C. (1963). Aquinas. London:  Penguin Books.

Cornfeld, Gaalya (1982). Josephus: The Jewish War. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.

Cornfeld, Gaalya, and Freedman, David Noel (1976). Archaeology of the Bible: Book by Book. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Cornford, F.M. (1957). From Religion to Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row.

Cornford, F.M. (1957). Plato’s Theory of Knowledge. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill.

Cornford, F.M. (1971). Thucydides Mythistoricus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Corte, Matteo Della (1976). Loves and Lovers in Ancient Pompeii. Salerno: Cava dei Tirreni.

Cosman, Madeleine Pelner (1976). Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony.  New York: George Braziller.

Costa, C.D.N. (1974). Seneca. London: Routledge. 

Crook, John (1967). Law and Life of Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The Birth of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper.

Cullman, Oscar (1953). Early Christian Worship. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

Cullman, Oscar (1964). Christ and Time. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Cullman, Oscar (1975). The Johannine Circle. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

Cumont, Franz (1912, 1960). Astrology and Religion among the Greeks and Romans. New York: Dover Publications.

Cumont, Franz (1956). The Mysteries of Mithra. New York: Dover Publications.

Cumont, Franz (1956). The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. New York: Dover Publications.

Cunliffe, Barry (1971). Fishbourne: A Roman Palace and its Garden. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Curran, John (2007). Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century. Oxford: Oxford Classical Monographs.

Dahl, Nils Alstrup (1976). Jesus in the Memory of the Early Church. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing.

Dalby, Andrew (2002). Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World. London: Routledge.

Danielou, Jean (1973). Gospel Message and Hellenistic Culture. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

Daniel-Rops, Henri (1979). Daily Life in Palestine at the Time of Christ. London: Phoenix Press.

D’Arms, John H. (1981). Commerce and Social Standing in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Daube, David (1956). Forms of Roman Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Daube, David (1973). The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism. New York: Arno Press. 

Davies, Malcolm, and Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney (1986). Greek Insects.  New York: Oxford University Press.

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Davies, W.D. (1980). Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

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Delbruck, Hans (1990). Warfare in Antiquity. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

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Dennie, John (1910). Rome of Today and Yesterday: The Pagan City. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

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Diaz-Mas, Paloma (1992). Sephardim. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Dixon, Suzanne (1988). The Roman Mother. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Dobin, Joel C. (1977). The Astrological Secrets of the Hebrew Sages. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, Inc.

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Dodd, C.H. (1954). The Epistle of Paul to the Romans. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Dodd, C.H. (1963). Historical Tradition in the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Dodd, C.H. (1978). The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Dodd, C.H. (1980). The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Dodds, E.R. (1933). Proclus: The Elements of Theology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Dodds, E.R. (1951). The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dodds, E.R. (1965). Pagan & Christian in an Age of Anxiety. New York: W.W. Norton.

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Dorsey, David A. (1991). The Roads and Highways of Ancient Israel. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Doughty, Charles M. (1989). Arabia Deserta. London: Bloomsbury.

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Downey, Glanville (1963). Ancient Antioch. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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Duby, Georges (1968). Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press. 

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Dumezil, Georges (1966). Archaic Roman Religion, vols. 1 and 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Duncan-Jones, Richard (1982). The Economy of the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dunn, James D.G. (1999). Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways AD 70 to 135. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Dupont, Florence (1989). Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Blackwell.

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Edelstein, Ludwig (1967). Ancient Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

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Ellis, E. Earle (1980). Prophecy and Hermeneutic in Early Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Ellis, E. Earle (1981). The Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Ellis, E. Earle (1991). The Old Testament in Early Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Ellis, E. Earle (1999). The Making of the New Testament Documents. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.

Ellis, J.R. (1976). Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism. London: Thames & Hudson. 

Erman, Adolf (1971). Life in Ancient Egypt. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Evans, Harry B. (1994). Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: The Evidence of Frontinus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Farnell, Lewis Richard (1977). The Cults of the Greek States, vols. 1-5. New Rochelle, New York: Caratzas Brothers. 

Faulkner, Neil (2002). Apocalypse: The Great Jewish Revolt Against Rome AD 66 -73. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing.

Feeley-Harnik, Gillian (1981). The Meaning of Food in Early Judaism and Christianity. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Feldman, Louis H., and Hata, Gohei (1987). Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Ferguson, John (1970). The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Feuchtwanger, Lion (1932). Josephus: A Historical Romance. London: Martin Secker.

Findlay, Alexander G. (1899). Classical Atlas, to Illustrate Ancient Geography. London: William Tegg & Co.

Finlay, M.I. (1973). The Ancient Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fink, Robert O. (1971). Roman Military Records on Papyrus.  The American Philological Association.

Finkelstein, Louis (1962). The Pharisees. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America.

Floud, Roderick, Fogel, Robert W., et al. (2011). The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fontenrose, Joseph (1978). The Delphic Oracle. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Case Western Reserve University.

Fourquin, Guy (1976). Lordship and Feudalism in the Middle Ages. New York: Pica Press. 

Fowden, Garth (1986). The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Fox, Robin Lane (1989). Pagans and Christians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Franco, Christiana (2014). Shameless: The Canine and the Feminine in Ancient Greece.  Oakland, California: University of California Press. 

Frankfort, Henri (1948). Kingship and the Gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Frankfurter, David (1998). Elijah in Upper Egypt. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 

Frankfurter, David (1998). Religion in Roman Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Frayn, Joan M. (1993). Markets and Fairs in Roman Italy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Frazer, J.G. (1896, 1965). Pausanias’ Description of Greece, vols. 1-6. New York: Biblo & Tannen.

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