Saturday, September 12, 2020


Hazuki Kajiwara, Surviving with Companion Animals in Japan: Life After a Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster. Palgrave Studies in Animals and Social Problems. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (2020). 

Japan has the most unique history and profound understanding of any nation in the world when it comes to the potential of nuclear power to destroy life. Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, though thinning, are still heard and on anniversaries of 1945 events remind the country of the devastation that occurred from nuclear bombs. What happened in 2011, when the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history shook the coast of northeastern Japan and led to a tsunami and partial destruction of the nuclear power complex at Fukushima, has an analogy in Chernobyl and rings a frightening note to residents of the west coast of the United States, always concerned about the potential for a devastating earthquake to break apart nuclear reactors. Such results, however, will for most American readers remain a distant horror story.

Cats and dogs were left to fend for themselves after Hurricane Katrina in 2005, but even the worst weather disasters in the United States have shorter recovery periods than what followed with the hydrogen explosions in three of the six nuclear reactors at Fukushima in 2011, with a complete meltdown at one, leaving some nearby areas largely uninhabited to this day.

The need to deal with pets after disasters became evident in rescue efforts following Hurricane Katrina, where rescue rafts were directed not to take pets on board. Subsequent political pressure exerted by pet owners in Louisiana and elsewhere, and by well-funded animal welfare groups, was sufficient to enact the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006. Whether U.S. governmental implementation of this legislation will be adequate in subsequent disasters to protect pets as much as possible has yet to be tested, but at least a framework has been put in place.

For a detailed and often gripping description of what happened with pets and their owners in northeastern Japan in 2011 and afterwards, we now have Surviving with Companion Animals in Japan: Life After a Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster, written by Hazuki Kajiwara. 

Unfortunately, unlike the United States, the Japanese government has continued to insist that its responsibilities only extend to humans caught in such horrible circumstances. If people have pets, the government encourages the owners to evacuate them when practical but does not recognize that the owners have any right to keep the pets with them in temporary, government-provided accommodations. Thus, another tragedy following the devastating events of 2011, according to Dr. Kajiwara, is that government policy regarding disaster response remains entirely anthropocentric, meaning that the same consequences for pets and their owners could very well happen again if, and more likely when, massive numbers of people must be relocated because of weather calamities, nuclear power failures, a biological or environmental disaster, or war.   

Dr. Kajiwara, a sociologist at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, places her analysis of what happened to people and pets following the fourth largest earthquake recorded since 1900 and the largest ever experienced in Japan, within the interdisciplinary field of Human-Animal Studies (HAS).She observes that how a society conceives the relationship between owner and pet “often reflects previously unconsidered aspects of a society, such as the way power is distributed and embedded in the daily lives of its citizens.” 

The book amounts to an indictment of a government that has ignored the significance of the human-animal bond that is so important to the mental health of a great many of its citizens. Deftly summarizing an extensive psychological literature, Dr. Kajiwara shows that pet loss often slows the process of recovering from a disaster. Similarly, for those lucky enough to keep or later be reunited with their pets, responding to the shared trauma often deepens the connection pet owners feel with their animals.

Dogs and cats, which make up most of the pets of Japan, have a long history in the island country. Dogs were present by the Jomon period (14,000-300 BC), and cats at least since the Nara period (710-794 AD). Dogs were used as hunters and guards, and cats as eliminators of vermin, though both also formed social bonds with the people they lived with. As in other countries, pets became members of families. By 2017, 34% of households in Japan had a companion animal, but only 23% of households had a child under 18 years of age, a gap that Dr. Kajiwara says will widen in the future. A 2018 survey determined there were about 8.9 million dogs in Japan and it has been estimated that there are nearly 10 million cats in the country. 

Until the mid-twentieth century, dogs and cats often lived most of their lives outdoors, but changes in population density and social acceptance began to shift in the 1970s and 1980s and most pets now live indoors. This led to pressures on real estate developers. Only 1% of apartments sold in Tokyo permitted pets in 1998, but 86.2% do now. Many more statistics are provided to give the reader a detailed window into the place of pets in Japanese society, something that is difficult to see on a vacation in Japan, such as this reviewer experienced for a month in November 2019. (In Japan I had occasion to meet Dr. Kajiwara and in a long discussion encouraged her to pursue turning her thesis into a book.)

Dr. Kajiwara goes into detail about the horrors of the 2011 tsunami and earthquake, and subsequent nuclear meltdown, which brings into sharp focus the extent of the disaster with which the government was faced, with over 400,000 homes completely or partially destroyed. The explosions at Nuclear Power Plant One in Fukushima blanketed an extensive area that had to be kept free of nearly everyone. Eight years after the accident, only 23.2% of residents have returned to the most affected districts, and only 6.2% in towns close to Fukushima, and about 40,000 former residents remain in evacuated status. Between 10,000 to 20,000 pets were left behind by evacuated owners. Less than 1,000 were ultimately rescued. The government did provide for pet food to be taken into tsunami-destroyed and nuclear-contaminated areas, and set up facilities where animals could be tested for radiation. 

Dr. Kajiwara, once a journalist and still a columnist for Tokyo’s Asahi Shimbun, has a novelist’s eye for detail and drama, particularly in the descriptions of what happened to people she interviewed extensively regarding their experiences with their pets during and after the disaster. She divides these accounts into two general categories, (1) those whose lives were altered by the tsunami, but who were generally outside of the nuclear-contaminated zones, and (2) those who were in the nuclear-contaminated areas.

For the nuclear-contaminated zones, Dr. Kajiwara examines the experiences of Hitomi Sato, a 56-year-old woman who lived in Fukushima. She does not jump immediately into Ms. Hitomi’s relationship with her cats and a dog but spends some beautifully descriptive pages letting us understand this woman:

Hitomi has lived with various kinds of animals in the farmhouse since she was small. Hitomi was brought up with warmed goat milk, drinking it through a straw made from a stock of the wheat because her mother didn’t have enough of her own milk. The family always had several cows and brought up their calves with great care and affection. Though Hitomi had a strong attachment to the calves, they were also an important source of income for her family.

Hitomi's evacuation had to be almost simultaneous, allowing her now time to search for her pets.  Returning while the area was still high-risk, Ms. Sato finds her dog but cries because she knows she cannot not take him with her. Anyone who entered the evacuation zone had to be screened for radioactivity upon leaving. Eventually the government allowed for the possibility of removing animals:

Owners leashed their animals to a secure anchor in front of their houses to later be picked up by a prefectural operative for radiation screening. Smaller animals were caged and placed in front of the house.  The animals were then brought back to their owner. When guardians were unable to live with their pets, the animals would be accommodated at the animal shelter run by the Fukushima Prefecture Animal Rescue Headquarters.

Hitomi was eventually reunited with her dog in this way, but in the next year had to suffer the agony of watching him die of cancer. She continues to search unsuccessfully for her cats.

The final part of the book reviews the theories that have been argued for creating a legal basis for guaranteeing the survival of pets and keeping them with their humans after a disaster. Dr. Kajiwara finds most of these theories inadequate to justify policy decisions. For instance, giving owners rights to the survival of their animals merely because they are owners of the animals, is entirely too anthropocentric and fails to consider animals as anything more than property, making rights as to them little different from rights to an expensive car or piece of art. She argues that instead “a right positioned between human rights and animal rights is required.” Therefore, she proposes a “bonding rights” argument, noting that animals could be regarded as members of society.

While Dr. Kajiwara promises to continue to flesh out the bonding-rights argument in future work, as a lawyer this reviewer was left with questions as to whether such a concept, as a basis for policy to create practical legislation and regulation, could work in practice. Ultimately, there must be a clear interface between policy and application, between theory and enforcement in the operation of government. How is a member of society that cannot speak the language of social governance to be given a voice? If the owner speaks for his pet, when is the owner replaced in this function if his or her decisions are in fact not in the animal’s interests? Is a separate group composed of veterinarians, shelter operators, and owners, and perhaps even non-owners, to be constituted to determine the best interests of the animals in any given situation, such as a disaster?  As Dr. Kajiwara points out, even veterinarians are often part of the commercial pet industry, a point she proves by noting that the Vice President of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association argued that the governmental recommendations regarding the evacuation of pets did not presume any right of pet owners to have a place to bring their pets if they could not find such a place on their own. Also, who speaks for the strays, abandoned animals, and animals that have lost their masters to the disaster?  Governmental operations and authority tend to break down in disasters and putting in place a system that would be complicated and difficult to implement even in ordinary times seems highly questionable as a policy recommendation. I eagerly await Dr. Kajiwara's elaboration of her solution.

Although most of the book reads well—often beautifullyit is an adaptation of Dr. Kajiwara’s doctoral thesis and occasionally suffers from maintaining certain thesis conventions. Some methodological and qualification paragraphs would have been best eliminated and do little more than tell the reader what is coming. While this can be justified in a scientific paper where the writer must detail the order of the evidence that will be presented, in a book for a general audience it is unnecessary. It would be best to just get on with it.  Still, there were only a few pages where this reviewer felt inclined to skip forward, and the overall presentation is effective and often captivating. 

Such quibbles are minor however and should not deter anyone interested in the impact of disasters on pets should be sure to put this wonderful volume in the reading queue. Anyone with an interest in pets, who is planning to travel to Japan for the Olympics or otherwise, will find much in the volume that will explain the place of pets in Japanese society.   

Sunday, May 31, 2020

Online Survey of the Effects of the Pandemic on Pets and Pet Owners

My colleague and frequent collaborator, Tadeusz Jezierski, is working with a group of other scientists in Europe to conduct an international survey regarding dog and cat welfare during the COVID-19 pandemic.  There are separate sites for the dog survey and the cat survey.

The questionnaire asks about the dog or dogs in your household and then seeks to elicit information on changes in your life and your dog's life that occurred as a result of the pandemic.  For instance, did care of the dog have to change as a result of the pandemic? Was there a change in your touching, stroking, and petting of your dog during the pandemic? Why did such changes occur (four choices including "other"). Did you take any measures to prevent spreading of COVID-19?  There are multiple answers to this question, such as "shorter walks", "disinfection of paws/coat", "avoiding close contact with other animals", "leaving your dog(s) temporarily under custody of other people", "giving up dog(s) forever," and "other".  Given news reports of an increasing number of adoptions at many shelters, the problem of abandoning pets may actually come when people return to work or when, because of job loss during the pandemic, abandon dogs and cats they can no longer afford to keep when the pandemic ends.

The survey asks about changes in the dog's behavior during the pandemic (calmer, anxious, apathetic, avoiding close contact or seeking close contact more frequently, development or increase in repetitive behavior, increased aggression, incontinence/urinating indoors, more frequent or less frequent barking, etc.). Were there changes in your dog's health during the pandemic?  The survey asks if you had difficulties in keeping the dog during the pandemic, e.g., with differences in food supply, access to veterinary care, negative comments or hostility from neighbors, pedestrians?  Were there any advantages of having the dog during the pandemic?

Although the survey is posted on a website supported by the European Commission, that is only the platform that the developers used. Most of the scientists who will be evaluating the completed questionnaires are associated with the Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences. They are seeking responses from every country and hope to gather enough data to draw conclusions about how the lives of pets and pet owners were affected by COVID-19 and the lock-down or other policies adopted by various countries in response to the pandemic.  I encourage my readers to spend a few minutes completing the survey. 

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Gnosticism in Corinth

I have published the books of Jacob Watts, of which I am the editor, as kindle books on Amazon. The Field of Ghosts and Memoirs of the Destruction are works of historical fiction that take place in Rome, Jerusalem, and other locations around the Mediterranean, during the first century AD. Jacob imagined the period through narratives left by four people who lived in the final years of the reign of the emperor Nero and into the reigns of Vespasian and Titus. The narrators were witnesses to some of the most important historical events of the period, including the great fire of AD 64, the Jewish revolt of AD 66 to 70, and the Roman civil wars from AD 68 to 69.

I have recently added genealogical tables of the Julio-Claudians (the first Roman imperial family) and of the Herodians, of which Queen Berenice of Cilicia, a principal character in Memoirs of the Destruction, was a member.

In working with the somewhat disorganized notes Jacob left with my mother in 1954, I needed to assemble a library of books he himself had consulted in constructing he narratives. I also attempted to read books by those scholars under whom and with whom Jacob studied at TΓΌbingen and later at Marburg, Germany, before and after World War II. I also received many valuable recommendations from Professor Earle Ellis, who was at the New Brunswick Theological Seminary when I first met him and who later founded the International Reference Library for Biblical Research. I have recently donated most of my theological and historical library to the Theological Book Network of Grand Rapids, Michigan, a charitable organization that sends donated books to seminaries and libraries around the world, particularly institutions operating in poorer countries where resources for building libraries are difficult to come by. 

One of my researchers asked me which book was my favorite of those I read for the editing assignment that I gave myself, which because of other responsibilities has taken more than thirty years. I answered that the book that moved me from having no thought of doing anything at all with Jacob’s notes towards a commitment to complete what I saw as his goal was Gnosticism in Corinth (German: Die Gnosis in Korinth). This book was written by a German theologian, Walter Schmithals, someone mentioned several times by Jacob in his correspondence and whom he apparently knew when they were both studying at Marburg. The book allowed me to see, for the first time, how early Christianity fit into the belief systems of the Greco-Roman world in the mid- to late-first century AD. Other books have given such perspectives just as well, but when I read Schmithals I saw for the first time what I must do with Jacob’s notes. I believe that Jacob’s work in India and southeast Asia, dealing with people he loved but who had grown up with very different religious backgrounds, gave him an interest in what it was like for apostles, like Paul and Peter, to speak to people who had a wide range of religious backgrounds as they traveled across the northern Mediterranean as far as and perhaps further than Rome.

Jacob wanted his readers not only to enter the ancient world but also the ancient mind. He did not want to sanitize the period to make it palatable to modern sensibilities, but he was equally determined not to demonize people whose practices and beliefs were very different from our own. He saw the danger of historical fiction presenting nothing more than a dress bell, as Marguerite Yourcenar warned against, with modern people walking through the ancient world as if we could be beamed back, like a Star Trek crew, and permitted to put on the costumes and walk through the buildings of the ancients without having to shed modern prejudices and thought patterns. He knew that Jews, Christians, worshipers of Isis, and holders of other beliefs and practices of the first century, had many more things in common in their daily lives with each other than any of them have with us.

Judaism and Christianity were in the early stages of a sometimes painful separation that would continue well into the second century and much longer in some places, with members of families divided by their acceptance or rejection of the new Christian perspectives, but often remaining close nevertheless. Three of the four principal narrators in the two novels had Jewish backgrounds, but only one of the narrators knew much of the history of Judaism or its temple practice in Jerusalem. That narrator, whose account is in Memoirs of The Destruction, Mahli the son of the priest Zabdi, struggled with how to deal with the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in AD 70. He eventually associated himself with the teachers who assembled after the revolt in Jamnia under the great rabbi, Yohanan ben Zakkai. These teachers set rabbinic Judaism on the path that it has held since. Mahli did not approve of his sister’s acceptance of Christianity in Rome, yet they did not allow this to come between them and remained in loving contact throughout their lives. Isidora, the first narrator in The Field of Ghosts, was born a slave in the household of a Roman senatorial family and grew up a pagan, eventually becoming a priestess of Isis. Her adoption of Christianity under the influence of a fellow slave did not involve a bitter separation from her pagan beliefs and she sometimes interpreted the Christian message through concepts she had acquired in the worship of an Egyptian goddess. Thus, the narrators varied considerably in how they understood Jewish and Christian perspectives and how they fit those perspectives into the world views they had grown up with.

I do not know if it would be said by Jacob, but I came to see the early period of Christianity, more than two centuries before it would begin to have official acceptance, as the best period in the religion’s history. The proponents of the teachings of Jesus and his followers had to work to spread their belief, and they had to consider how people of different backgrounds would interpret words that did not always have the same meaning for those speaking as they did for those listening. I am not religious myself—in fact I am an atheist—but as I read the New Testament in Greek in order to understand how the evangelists thought and spoke, I could not help but admire how these tireless messengers always had dust on their feet as they moved from village to village, city to city, region to region. They were trying to spread a message they saw as crucial to surviving the end of time, which many of them believed was imminent. They were not trying, and would not have been able, to impose their beliefs on anyone. They had no political power and sought none. They had to be persuasive, rather than dictatorial, and they had to set examples. They could ill afford discrepancies between their public and private lives.

Taking us back into this world also required that Jacob show that there were trajectories of belief in Christianity and Judaism that did not survive to modern times, or sometimes even beyond the first or second century. The characters he imagined do not always say things that a modern Christian or Jew would find acceptable. That, more than any other reason, was why I had to learn about the time, because I did not want to misunderstand what a statement, such as the description of Jesus as a demigod, meant in first-century Rome. Centralization of the control of much of the Christian world in Rome and of rabbinic Judaism in Babylon (Bagdad) in late antiquity led to standardization of belief, as a result of which other early concepts withered and disappeared, only to be resurrected by modern scholarship of the sort in which Jacob once studied.

I have begun the process of digitizing Jacob’s notes, but that will take time to complete. In the meantime, the following list includes the books Jacob referred to, as well as those I consulted in working with his notes. Although most of these books are now being distributed by the Theological Book Network, there are a few, such as Gnosticism in Corinth, that I cannot bring myself to part with. Just having that and some other books on a shelf reminds me of minor epiphanies that were important in realizing Jacob’s objectives, which takes me briefly back to a world I do not want ever to leave entirely. 

Adkins, Lesley, and Adkins, Roy A. (1996). Dictionary of Roman Religion. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Aharoni, Yohanan (1979). The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Aharoni, Yohanan, and Avi-Yonah, Michael (1977). The Macmillan Bible Atlas. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Albright, W.F. (1949). The Archaeology of Palestine. Baltimore: Penguin Books. 

Allbutt, T. Clifford (1921). Greek Medicine in Rome.  London: Macmillan & Co.

Alon, Gedalyahu (1977). Jews, Judaism and the Classical World. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press. 

Alon, Gedaliah (1989). The Jews in Their Land in the Talmudic Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

American School of Classical Studies at Athens (1954). Ancient Corinth: A Guide to the Excavations.

Anderson, Graham (1984). Ancient Fiction: The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World. London: Groom Helm.

Anderson, James C. (1997). Roman Architecture and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Anderson, William J., and Spiers, R. Phene (1927). The Architecture of Ancient Greece. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.

Argall, Randal A., Bow, Beverly A., and Werline, Rodney A. (eds.). For a Later Generation. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press.

Argyle, A.W. (i1963). The Gospel According to Matthew. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Arnheim, M.T.W. (1977). Aristocracy in Greek Society. London: Thames & Hudson.

Arnold, W.T. (1914). Roman Provincial Administration. Chicago: Ares Publishers.

Asch, Sholem (1943). The Apostle. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Avi-Yonah (1961). The Herodian Period. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 

Bachofen, J.J. (1967). Myth, Religion, and the Mother Right. Princeton: Bollingen Series.

Bainton, Roland H. (1952). The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Bainton, Roland H. (1973). Women of the Reformation in France and England. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Baldwin, Barry (1973). Studies in Lucian. Toronto: Hakkert.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1963). Roman Women: Their History and Habits. New York: The John Day Co.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1969). Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. London: Phoenix Press.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1979).Romans and Aliens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Baly, Denis (1937). The Geography of the Bible. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Bammel, Ernst, and Moule, C.F.D. (1985). Jesus and the Politics of His Day. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barclay, John M.G. (1996). Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora from Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barker, Ernest (1958). The Politics of Aristotle. London: Oxford University Press.

Barker, John W. (1966). Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Barker, Phil (1981). The Armies and Enemies of Imperial Rome. West Sussex: Wargames Research Group.

Barnes, Timothy D. (1981). Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Barret, Anthony (1996). Agrippina: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Early Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press. 

Barton, Carlin (1993). The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Barton, Tamsyn S. (1994). Ancient Astrology. London: Routledge.

Barton, Tamsyn S. (2002). Power and Knowledge: Astrology, Physiognomics, and Medicine under the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bartsch, Shadi (1994). Actors in the Audience: Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to Hadrian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Bauckham, Richard (1990). Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark.

Bauckham, Richard (1995). The Book of Acts in Its First Century Setting. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Bauer, Walter (1971). Orthodoxy and Hersey in Earliest Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 

Beacham, Richard C. (1992). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Beard, Mary, and North, John (1990). Pagan Priests. London: Duckworth.

Beare, W. (1951). The Roman Stage: A Short History of Latin Drama in the Time of the Republic. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Becatti, Giovanni et al. (1967). Mithraism in Ostia. Northwestern University Press.

Bechmann, Roland (1990). Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages. New York: Paragon House.

Beck, Lois (1991). Nomad: A Year in the Life of a Qashqa’I Tribesman in Iran. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Becker, W.A. (1899). Charicles or Illustrations of the Private Life of the Ancient Greeks. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

Beinart, Haim (1992). Atlas of Medieval Jewish History. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bell, H. Idris (1957). Cults & Creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Chicago: Ares Publishers Inc.

Ben-Dov, Meir (1982). In the Shadow of the Temple: The Discovery of Ancient Jerusalem. New York: Harper & Row.

Berman, Harold J. (1983). Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge:

Berquist, Jon L. (1989). Judaism in Persia’s Shadow. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock.

Bickerman, Elias J. (1980). Chronology of the Ancient World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Bickerman, Elias J. (1988). The Jews in the Greek Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

Bieber, Margarete (1971). The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Binns, L. Elliott (1967). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Medieval Papacy. London: Archon Books.

Bishop, W.J. (1960). The Early History of Surgery.  New York: Barnes & Noble.

Blake, Marion Elizabeth (1973). Roman Construction in Italy from Nerva through the Antonines. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Bokser, Baruch M. (1984). The Origins of the Seder: The Passover Rite and Early Rabbinic Judaism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bonner, Stanley F. (1977). Education in Ancient Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1969). Early Christian Experience. New York: Harper & Row.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1969). Paul. New York: Harper & Row.

Bornkamm, Gunther (1975). Jesus of Nazareth. New York: Harper & Row.

Bourguet, Pierre du (1965). Early Christian Painting. New York: Compass Books. 

Bousset, Wilhelm (1970). Kyrio Christos. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Boylan, Patrick (1922). Thoth: The Hermes of Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bradley, K.R. (1978). Suetonius’ Life of Nero: An Historical Commentary. Brussels: Latomus Revue d’Etudes Latines.

Bradley, K.R. (1984). Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brandon, S.G.F. (1967). Jesus and the Zealots. New York: Scribner’s.

Brandon, S.G.F. (1978). The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church. London: SPCK.

Branston, Brian (1974). The Lost Gods of England. New York: Oxford University Press.

Braudel, Fernand (1967). Capitalism and the Material Life, 1400-1800. New York: Harper Colophon.

Breasted, James H. (1940). Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Brentano, Robert (1974). Rome before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth-Century Rome. New York: Basic Books.

Brilliant, Richard (1963). Gesture and Rank in Roman Art. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Sciences.

Brooke, Christopher (1978). The Saxon and Norman Kings: Third Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Brooten, Bernadette J. (1982). Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue. Brown Judaic Studies 36. Chico, California: Scholars Press.

Brothwell, Don and Patricia (1969). Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Brown, Peter (1967). Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brown, Peter (1982). Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. London: Faber & Faber.

Brown, Peter (1988). The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.

Brown, Raymond (1979). The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York: Paulist Press.

Bruce, F.F. (1969). The Acts of the Apostles. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans.

Bruce, F.F. (1985). The Pauline Circle. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B Eerdmans.

Buchler, Adolph (1968). Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety from 70 B.C.E. to 70 C.E. New York: Ktav Publishing House.

Buckland, W.W. (1908, 1970). The Roman Law of Slavery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1955). Theology of the New Testament. New York: Scribner’s.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1976). History of the Synoptic Tradition. New York: Harper & Row.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1985).The Second Letter to the Corinthians. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House.

Bultmann, Rudolf (1987). Faith and Understanding. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

Burckhardt, Jacob (1949). The Age of Constantine the Great. New York: Doubleday & Co.

Burkert, Walter (1983). Homo Necans. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cagnat, R. (1911, 1975). Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes. Chicago: Ares Publishers.

Cameron, Alan (1973). Porphyrius the Charioteer.  Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Cameron, Averil, and Hall, Stuart G. (1999). Eusebius: Life of Constantine. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Campbell, Joseph (1955). The Mysteries. Princeton: Bollingen Series XXX.

Cantarella, Eva (1992). Bisexuality in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale University of Press.

Carcopino, Jerome (1940). Daily Life in Ancient Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Casson, Lionel (1973). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Casson, Lionel (1974). Travel in the Ancient World. Toronto: Hakkert.

Chadwick, Henry (1976). Priscillian of Avila: The Occult and the Charismatic in the Early Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Chadwick, Owen (1977). The Reformation. Middlesex, England: Penguin.

Champlin, Edward (1980). Fronto and Antonine Rome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Charlesworth, James H. (1977). The Odes of Solomon. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press.

Cheesman, G.L. (1914, 1975). The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army. Chicago: Ares Press.

Cheyney, Edward P. (1962). The Rise of Modern Europe: The Dawn of a New Era, 1250-1453.  New York: Harper & Row.

Chilver, G.E.F. (1979). A Historical Commentary on Tacitus’ Histories I and II; (1985). A Historical Commentary on Tacitus’ Histories IV and V. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Christian, William A. (1992). Moving Crucifixes in Modern Spain.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Clauss, Manfred (2000). The Roman Cult of Mithras. New York: Routledge.

Clinton, Henry Fynes (1845, but reprinted). Fasti Romani: The Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople, 2 vols. New York: Burt Franklin.

Coarelli, Filippo (1984). Greek and Roman Jewelry. London: Cassell.

Cochrane, Charles Norris (1977). Christianity and Classical Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cohen, Shaye J.D. (1989). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 

Collier, Mark, and Manley, Bill (1998). How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Collins, Minta (2000). Medieval Herbals: The Illustrative Traditions. London: University of Toronto Press.

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