Thursday, September 8, 2011

WikiDogs: Canines in the Leaked U.S. Diplomatic Cables

The U.S. diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks contain numerous references to “canine” and “police dog,” though not all of these references are about non-human species. A cable from Embassy Harare in 2000 refers to Mugabe’s protean guard as being “loyal in a canine way.” Most cables refer to canine teams that were trained or deployed with the support of the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), and the cables appear to have been sent to advise Washington that the countries where the embassies are located are appreciative of the canine teams and Washington’s support. Some cables provide estimates of the amount of drugs that have been seized, or describe dogs discovering bombs and IEDs.

The picture shows an INL-funded dog at a Ciudad Juarez car bomb site. Not all dogs mentioned are narcotics and explosives detectors. Cadaver dogs are referred to in several cables. Dual-function dogs are mentioned occasionally, though the embassy officials writing the cables were more concerned with the successes of the dogs than their training regimens. The officials were, in other words, providing fodder for summary reports to be written by DC State Department staff showing that money for canine programs is being well spent in the field.

The amount of expertise in embassies regarding specialized canine work is probably not that high in general. The State Department’s Inspector General noted in a 2010 report, Limited-Scope Review of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Oversight of Explosives Detection Canine Programs, that Department of State personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan did not have expertise in explosive detection canines and had to rely on the canine contractors themselves on issues such as whether dogs were being effectively trained or testing samples were being stored properly.

Not all cables have a positive tone. Austria has provided training for police from a number of countries including Afghanistan and Kazakhstan, as has Germany. Several officials speaking at a 2009 International Canine Conference in Kazakhstan were critical of a number of the canine programs of many of the countries in central Asia. Tajikistan was criticized for letting dogs die from lack of care. Although Uzbekistan has one of the best programs in the region, a cable from the embassy in Kazakhstan noted that it was doubtful, because of local hostility, that Tajikistan would be willing to let its officers train in Uzbekistan. An Austrian official criticized trainers in central Asia for not using real drugs in training narcotics detection dogs, though there has been a history of prosecuting canine trainers in some countries for selling drug samples they had been given for training purposes and some of the trainers did not want to risk such an accusation. A 2006 cable said that Tajik Border Guards were using trained drug detection dogs as guard dogs, leaving them outside in sub-zero temperatures. The embassy cable said that “the Border Guards have made no sincere effort to integrate the dogs into their work program.”

Cables from Kuwait describe a large canine unit (80 dogs in 2009) used to guard oil fields in the country, with canine units stationed at every refinery gate. Although over 500 trainers have come to the U.S. for training in Front Royal, Virginia, and El Paso, Texas, training is increasingly being done in the regions where narcotics and explosives detection dogs will work. The cables refer to canine training centers in Azerbaijan, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Tajikistan, and Trinidad. Even though some countries may not have effective canine units, there seems little doubt that most countries that receive U.S. aid in narcotics enforcement have been anxious to get more canine teams. Countries that are currently attempting to increase their numbers of canine units include Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Finland, Honduras, Kenya, Kosovo, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Although the cables indicate the State Department has been very positive to training provided in Bad Kreuzen, Austria, there has been some friction with Germany, which also provides international training. The Berlin embassy informed the State Department in 2008 of an agreement the Germans made to train representatives of the Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps. The embassy referred to Germany’s “credulity” in accepting “talking points” from Iran.

Cables sometimes refer to programs that have failed to keep their canine programs effective, including the Dominican Republic (dogs reaching the end of their useful lives) and the Philippines (in 2006, country’s armed forces lacked “even a basic canine explosives detection program”). Cables sometimes mention friction between other countries regarding the use of dogs. When the King Abdullah of Jordan visited Baghdad in August 2008, he apparently insisted on having his soldiers sweep the meeting location with dogs, something that offended the Iraqis. Dr. Tariq Abdullah told Americans: “If we visit Amman again, I too will insist that we (canine) sweep the King’s palace and that we bring our own tea and orange juice, as the Jordanians did.”

(King Abdullah is not the only one who thinks bomb dogs are a good precaution to have in Baghdad. In a redacted report released by the U.S. State Department Inspector General in May 2013, Inspection of Baghdad and Constituent Posts Iraq (ISP-I-13-24A), the IG states that several "security programs at Embassy Baghdad are atypical.  The sense and warn system (identifies, tracks, and warns employees of income rocket and mortar fire), biometric access control (daily iris scans or fingerprinting of local employees), emergency reaction teams, and explosives detection dogs are but a few."  The annual cost of the canine screening program is listed in the report as amounting to $50,939,224.)

When it comes to dogs, the U.S. and Cuba may not be so far apart. Although Cuba originally learned many of its canine training techniques from the Stasi (the East German secret police), a U.S. Coast Guard officer assigned to the U.S. Interests in Havana Section visited the Cuban National Canine Training Center in 2008. (See The Dogs of the Stasi.)

One curious fact that is revealed in a cable from the embassy in Kazakhstan is that drug traffickers in the area try to disguise shipments of heroin by coating the packaging with powdered wolves’ teeth. Chalk up another stupid reason for killing wolves.

The following are countries and canine issues mentioned in the cables. The numbers in parenthesis correlate with the 51 cables listed at the end of this blog. The maps are taken from CIA World Factbook.

Afghanistan. The U.S. Mission has, according to a 2008 cable (7), supplied canine units for border work in Afghanistan. Although a U.S. police trainer began training Afghani military personnel, training was taken over by the Austrian Ministry of Interior’s Canine Center (see Kazakhstan’s 2009 conference discussed below), which trained at least three Afghani personnel in Austria. A 2007 cable described an attempted IED attack at Kabul Airport (21):

“At approximately 1000 hours local time on 18 April, a pipe bomb was detected aboard a fuel truck shortly after it entered the north (military) gate to Kabul International Airport. The truck had just passed through an Afghan National Army (ANA) checkpoint and, according to witnesses, the driver appeared not to know where he was going. He had pulled up to the sallyport of an INL construction site, then apparently changed his mind and backed up to start in another direction. The truck was reportedly loaded with kerosene or diesel for ground vehicles. An ISAF [International Security Assistance Force] CANINE team detected explosive residue on the truck and immediately seized the truck and locked down the area. The canine team had been deployed inside the ANA perimeter in response to intelligence that an IED may be on its way to the airport. On further investigation, the pipe bomb was discovered at arm's length in a fuel hose adjacent to the main fuel tank. An EOD team disposed of the device, which contained 1.5 pounds of high explosives and an electronic remote firing mechanism. Questioning of the driver and helper has indicated initially that both denied awareness of the bomb.”

Azerbaijan. A 2009 cable refers to Azerbaijan opening a canine training center (8).

Bangladesh. A 2009 cable says that the Rapid Action Battalion of Bangladesh has a canine corps of 51 dogs (9), up from the 44 noted in a 2007 cable (11).

Belgium. A 2009 cable from the Brussels embassy states that the Belgian Canine Support Service has trained teams to search for drugs, and that these teams are used mostly at airports and train stations.

Colombia. Narcotics detection dogs are frequently mentioned as being used at borders, such as at Ipiales, on Colombia’s southern border with Ecuador (1).

Cuba. Despite the absence of formal relations between Havana and Washington, a 2008 cable (10) states that Cuban authorities have provided the U.S. Coast Guard officer assigned to the U.S. Interests in Havana Section “exposure to Cuban counternarcotics efforts, including providing investigative criminal information, such as names of suspects and vessels, debriefings on drug trafficking cases, visits to the Cuban National Canine Training Center and the anti-doping laboratory in Havana.”

Dominican Republic. A 2006 cable (48) stated that the Dominican Republic “maintained its counternarcotics and explosive detection canine units at its international airports and major sea ports. canine units at the five major airports in the country received updated explosives training and certification in 2006. The DNCD is purchasing canines for training in drug detection. Plans are underway to establish a CANINE training location utilizing an Army base that is currently in use.” The cable also says that the U.S. provided the country “equipment and training to maintain the explosive detection canine units.” A 2010 cable (49) states that a number of dogs in the country’s drug detection program “have met their useful life and are in the process of being retires. Four to six dogs will be retrained in the program for another year or two.”

El Salvador. In November 2004, the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs financed the construction of a canine training facility at Planes de los Renderos, just outside of San Salvador. A 2009 cable from the San Salvador Embassy (31) describes U.S. support:

“We have continued to invest in the CANINE program by purchasing training aids and sending instructors to NAS Colombia and NAS Guatemala for training. The Salvadoran police have been committed to developing the program, and their dedication is finally producing positive results. From January through July of 2006, CANINE alerts have detected eleven kilograms (kg) of marijuana, five kg of cocaine, and three kg of heroin, with a combined street value of US$365,000. The CANINE program instructors recently trained four currency detection dogs, and we expect undeclared currency seizures to increase at the international airport.

“Building upon this success, we recently completed the construction of five training cabanas and a rest area at the CANINE facility. With these new editions, El Salvador is now fully competent to train guides and dogs in narcotics, currency, and EXPLOSIVES DETECTION. Despite these capabilities, we have no intention of competing with NAS Guatemala with regards to regional training. We offer an alternative training facility in the event that NAS Guatemala cannot accommodate regional training needs, as well as a CANINE training venue for the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) and other international training agencies.”

Germany. Germany is sometimes cited providing canine support. A June 2006 report (2) from the Embassy in Kabul mentions that the “German Police Project Office (GPPO) was constructing a facility to house 60 canines scheduled for delivery to Kabul in December 2006, 15 of which were to begin training in January 2007 for deployment to border control points. The Berlin embassy informed Washington in May 2008 (17) Germany provided Iranian police with canine detection training in May or June 2008 “as part of a counternarcotics protocol signed by the German Interior Ministry with Iran in November 2007.” The cable referred to Germany’s “credulity in accepting standard IRIG [Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps] talking points on Iran’s activities in Iraq and Afghanistan.”

Honduras. A 2005 cable from Honduras (40) reports that the State Department has provided support for the canine program of the Honduras Frontier Police, including training for handlers and dogs, veterinary services, food, and supplies.

India. In a 2008 dispatch from the U.S. Consulate in Kolkata (16), the West Bengal Police ruled out a bomb as the cause of an explosion 200 meters from the Consulate.

Iraq. Iraq searched refugee camps with canines in April 2009 (18). When the King Abdullah of Jordan visited Baghdad in August 2008, he apparently insisted on having his soldier’s sweep the meeting location with dogs, something that offended the Iraqis. Dr. Tariq Abdullah told Americans (19): “If we visit Amman again, I too will insist that we (canine) sweep the King’s palace and that we bring our own tea and orange juice, as the Jordanians did.”

Israel. A 2004 cable from the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv (20) detailed that Hamas took credit for killing an Israeli soldier and his dog near Karni Crossing with an IED during a search for weapons.

Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan has requested canine support from the U.S. (22), and according to the Department of State website posting in 2009, has had 94 officers receive counternarcotics canine training. In 2008, the State Department initiated a canine program and funded the purchase of three dogs and sponsored the attendance of three Kazakhstani officers at a two-month course at the Canine Center in Bad Kreuzen, Austria (23). Further:

“The training of the first three dogs was meant to acquaint Kazakhstanis with the Austrian method of training dogs for the search of drugs and allow Kazakhstani and Austrian officials to exchange experience in this area. The Austrian method uses training approaches that minimize stress and conflict and maximize psychological work with the dogs. The training of instructors was followed by a series of interagency training programs in Kazakhstan. Through its grant to IOM, INL is renovating sections of the CANINE facility at the Military Institute of the Committee for National Security.”

From the wording, it is not clear if the Americans are taking credit for the Austrian approach or deferring to it. A 2009 cable (42) indicates that the INL funds participation of Kazakh officers to the extent of $40,000. Further:

“[Kazakh officers] trained at the Austrian Ministry of Internal Affairs' CANINE Training Center successfully conduct training programs at their agencies. Through this program, INL intends to increase the number of instructors trained in Austrian methodology. Kazakhstan is also developing a textbook to train CANINE specialists, including chapters on the Austrian methods. Additional information on training methods in other countries is also necessary to increase the effectiveness of Kazakhstani methods.”

Some of these facts made it into the Kazakhstan—U.S. Foreign Assistance Performance Publication for Fiscal Year 2009. A 2009 cable (41) indicates the INL funded “a study on canine socialization when housed with their handlers,” and that the Kazakh canine service had shifted to dry food for dogs, “which is healthier than the previously-used cooked food.” The cable contained some very curious facts about smuggling drugs in the area:

“Traffickers continue to search for new concealment methods. Recently, traffickers attempted to mask the scent of heroin from canines by coating shipments with powdered wolves' teeth. Traffickers also soak clothing in a heroin solution. When the clothing is delivered the heroin can then be extracted.”

A 2010 memo posted on the INL website, describes an undated competition in which Kazakh canine teams defeated teams from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Russia. “The competition, won by the team from Kazakhstan, helped develop professional relationships between canine services of the participating countries and proved a popular performance incentive for the trainers.”

Kazakhstan’s 2009 International Canine Conference. An International Conference on the Role of Canines in the Fight against Drug Trafficking, Extermism and Terrorism was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan on March 26-7, 2009 (5). Five Central Asian countries, Austria, and Germany “discussed coordination and the possibility of unified CANINE standards in the region.” Most countries did not appear to have effective programs:

“In general, most national representatives complained that insufficient budgets resulted in poor quality dogs and undertrained handlers. Only Uzbekistan touted its accomplishments but deferred from volunteering to be a regional breeding center.” The Kazakhstani program was seen as adequate and sustainable and Kazakhstan volunteered to host regional training, including for Afghanistan. There was additional evidence about why some countries did not have adequate programs:

“Alexander Bodnar, head of the CANINE Department of Kazakhstan's Military Institute, presented his views on the reasons that CANINE programs in Central Asia have not succeeded. He stated that there are no regionally accepted methods of training CANINE specialists and dogs. Moreover, there are an insufficient number of dogs meeting the selection requirements for special training. These countries do not sufficiently fund their CANINE programs and the budgets provided are not sufficient to purchase quality dogs. Law enforcement agency headquarters generally do not understand the needs of the CANINE services and the importance and abilities of their CANINE services. Bodnar also complained of an insufficient number of instructors and managers in Central Asia capable of conducting training for CANINE specialists. He proposed retraining current CANINE specialists as opposed to training new ones. He also stated that there is very little communication among CANINE instructors in the region.”

Bodnar said that some dogs at the canine center of the Tajik Border Guard Service died because of insufficient care. The Drug Control Agency in Tajikistan does, according to Bodnar, take good care of its dogs. Bodnar was also critical of Kyrgyzstan. A Kyrgyz official seemed to agree:

“Pavel Sukhodolskih, Head of the CANINE and Cavalry Services of the Border Guard Service of Kyrgyzstan, discussed the activity of criminal groups within large flows of migrants. Currently, the Border Guard Service, the State Customs Committee, and the Drug Control Agency have 54 dogs trained in searching for drugs and explosives; however, they are only able to cover 20% of the Kyrgyz border with Kazakhstan. Sukhodolskih complained that of a lack of pure-bred dogs, lack of professional instructors, insufficient equipment, and absence of methodological literature hamper efforts to train specialists.”

Although the Uzbek government representative touted his countries canine program, noting that his trainers had worked with experts from Austria, Kazakhstan, France, Russia, and Germany, the U.S. embassy cable contained a parenthetical comment: “(COMMENT: There is some question if all Central Asian countries, particularly Tajikistan, would be willing to attend training in Uzbekistan. END COMMENT).”

An Austrian participant was broadly critical of canine training in Central Asia:

“Josef Schuetzenhofer, the Head of the Austrian Ministry of Interior's CANINE Center, discussed existing problems and prospects for future cooperation. Since May 2005, he has had an opportunity to learn about the CANINE systems in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan. He maintained that there is a lack of quality work dogs, a lack of breeding dogs, and improper dogs are purchased. All services should pay attention to the selection of dogs, proper training of puppies, training dogs in a less stressful manner, training with proper equipment, and humane treatment of dogs. In the future, Schuetzenhofer would like to see an increase in the use of CANINEs, interagency cooperation, and the use of real drugs for training, as well as bigger budgets better used, and an improvement in breeding programs.”

The embassy cable said that all dog training programs in Kazakhstan use drug substitutes for training, partly because trainers refuse to use real drugs. Administrative and criminal cases were initiated against canine officers in the past for misuse of training samples. The cable also concluded that “all services in Kazakhstan will unanimously move to the Austrian methodology of training dogs.”

The INL website describes providing three dogs in 2008 that were trained in Austria and then sent to training facilities in Kazakhstan.

Kenya. A cable from January 2009 (30) states that the Kenya Revenue Board will be acquiring four more dogs from the U.S. to improve and expand its Canine Enforcement Program.

Kosovo. The Kosovo Police Service swept a truck at the Kulla border with dogs that alerted (24). A large amount of cocaine was found.

Kuwait. The Oil Sector Services Company (OCCC) was reported by the embassy in Kuwait in 2009 (25) to be putting together an “80 team strong canine unit trained by a U.S. company. An earlier report (26) indicated that canine units were to be stationed at every refinery gate.

Mexico. The El Paso Canine Center in Texas has, according to the INL website INL website, trained dogs for the Mexico City Airport.

Additional Note. In a presidential memorandum to the Secretary of State published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2015, President Obama stated "the United States has provided scanners, x-ray machines, other non-intrusive inspection equipment, as well as trained canines, to enhance Mexican authorities' ability to detect illicit goods at key checkpoints and ports of entry along the border, resulting in significant seizures of illicit drugs, currency, weapons, and explosives."  This may indicate that both narcotics and explosives detection dogs are being supplied by the U.S. to Mexico.  Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for Fiscal Year 2016, 80 Fed. Reg. 57063 (September 21, 2015).

Panama. A 2005 cable (45) states that the “United States has provided Panamanian Customs with training, operational tools, and a canine program that has become a linchpin of the Tocument International Airport Drug Interdiction Law Enforcement Team. During 2005, the canine program was dramatically expanded, allowing it to operate outside the confines of the airport.”

Paraguay. A 2005 cable (46) states that “the continued purchase and training of new canine units have helped to increase overall cocaine seizures for the past three years.” The cable refers to INL funding and says that the government of Paraguay “does not have the resources to carry out these essential activities.”

Peru. The Lima Embassy in 2008 (27) described dogs finding $120,000 hidden in a nylon stocking strapped to a man’s body, and later finding cocaine on a flight bound for Turkey. The U.S. is helping fund canine narcotics detection teams for Peru (28, 29).

Philippines. A 2005 cable indicates that dogs were used in putting down a prison riot (43). A 2006 cable (44) stated that the Armed Forces of the Philippines lack “even a basic canine explosive detection program.”

Ports. Turkey has sniffer dogs at the Port of Izmir (4), though the embassy cable states that there is no device to screen containers. Argentine customs officials use mobile cargo scanners, but also have a canine unit (6). Finland, according to a 2009 cable (15) has “enhanced its use of narcotics detection canine units at key ports of entry into Finland.” The cable says this is seen by Finland as primarily having a deterrent function.

Tajikistan. A 2006 cable (13) notes that International Law Enforcement and Narcotics, a bureau in the Department of State, was critical of the Tajik use of dogs:

“In late 2005, INL funded a program to provide the Tajik Border Guards with drug-detecting dogs. The Border Guards cannot account for all the dogs provided, and post has previously suspected that local Border guards sold the pups of these dogs for personal profit. During October and November visits to the Bog and Bakhorat border posts, EmbOffs [embassy officers] observed other INL-donated dogs posted outside in sub-zero temperatures to serve as watchdogs, which adversely affects their intended purpose of detecting narcotics. COMMENT: Post is deeply disturbed by the misuse of INL-provided dogs. While this project is designed to help fortify the border from the illicit narcotics transit, the Border Guards have made no sincere effort to integrate the dogs into their work program. Post's Senior Law Enforcement Advisor attended an unproductive National CANINE Strategy Interministerial Subcommittee meeting. The Interministerial group has failed to come up with government resources to maintain the dogs. As a result, Post has decided that until the National CANINE Strategy is finalized with clear delineation of responsibilities among the Tajik law enforcement agencies, we will not conduct any dog-related program. Nor will we agree to provide additional dogs, unless they are first neutered and spayed to preclude breeding for sale. END COMMENT. “

Nevertheless, in 2009, another cable from Tajikistan referred to building a new Drug Control Agency canine training facility, though apparently without U.S. support (14).

Trinidad. A 2007 cable (50) describes Trinidad’s canine academy program, funded by the Department of State:

“The K9 Academy is composed of 18 canines and their respective handlers: 9 explosive detection canines (or bomb dogs), 6 tactical/narcotics dogs, 2 straight narcotics and 1 cadaver-finding dog. The bomb dogs, who work with the Explosive Detection and Disposal Unit, have responded to numerous threats in all parts of the country. Their debut in service came with a series of small and still unsolved explosions in Port of Spain in mid-late 2005. The dogs were also put into regional service when the Indian Black Cat Commandos requested a dog and handler to search for bombs at Providence Stadium in Guyana during the Cricket World Cup in Spring 2007.

“The seven canines that make up the Tactical Narcotics team have been instrumental in the discovery of over 350kg of marijuana, 1 kg of heroin and 9 kg of cocaine between May 2006 and May 2007, valued at approximately USD 670,000, as well as finding arms and ammunition. The CADAVER DOG has found one body so far and works with the Homicide branch of the Police Division.

“The K9 Academy continues to grow. The renovated kennels can now house 36 canines. In an effort to integrate female officers, the necessary accommodations are being constructed at the academy. Recertification is required every year and as a result, one of the initial K9 officers has reached the level of assistant instructor. Due to the popularity and prestige of the unit, a competitive candidate waiting list now exists.

“Post's INL program contracted with CSI International to conduct the initial training and certification. Since then, the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has retained CSI for a two year period to oversee the continuous training and re-certification of the dogs. President and CEO of CSI, Anthony Piegare continues to receive high praise from handlers and the Police Service as a whole, for his level of expertise, commitment to excellence and to the program. Post appreciates his willingness to work as a partner to the program, ensuring its success.”

A 2010 cable (51) provided an update on the canine program:

“All of the dogs continue to be used extensively at the airports and other points of entry, in addition to being used in the EXPLOSIVE DETECTION unit. They have conducted over 200 operations including search of outgoing and incoming passenger's baggage, import and export cargo, courier packages, major high profile events and during several bomb threats. They have assisted in the capture of over 25kg of marijuana, and approx 5kg of cocaine. When seen carrying out their duties, these canines convey a sense of security to the public. However, these dogs have been over-worked and may need to be replaced soon.”

Turkmenistan. A 2010 cable (36) indicates that “the Turkmen government has a particular interest in canine training, anti-cyber crime technology, and training in hostage negotiations.”

U.S. Support for Other Countries’ Canine Programs. The U.S. sometimes provides support for programs of other countries training sniffer dogs, such as Turkey’s Golbasi National Dog Training Center (3), Dominican Republic anti-narcotics officers, who went to Miami for training (12), the Trinidad and Tobago Canine Training Academy (32), and Bulgaria’s Training Center at Balchik (47).

Uzbekistan. The Embassy in Tashkent reported in April 2006 (33) that Uzbekistan’s use of dogs at borders was “thorough and professional.” The amount of U.S. funding is unclear (37, 38). France provides some training (39). In 2008, a cable (34) said that the Uzbeki Customs National Canine Training Center “has become a regional center for the World Customs Organization and has begun training officers from Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Iran, Mongolia, and Turkmenistan. A 2009 cable (35), however, complained that at the Temez River Port there “is only one canine available to examine incoming agricultural cargo from Afghanistan, and it tires after no more than 20 minutes in the intense summer heat.” The State Department's 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report stated that Uzbekistan "routinely compels children and adults as laborers in the country's annual cotton harvest. During the 2009 fall harvest, school children were forced to pick cotton in at least eight of 14 regions in the country." It must be wondered if efficient border guards always have humanitarian interests in mind.

(1) Embassy Bogota, December 2009, ID 10BOGOTA244, 2010-01-22.
(2) Embassy Kabul, June 2006, ID 06KABUL4317, 2006-09-21.
(3) Embassy Ankara, May 2004, ID 04ANKARA3756, 2004-07-06.
(4) Embassy Ankara, December 2004, ID 04ANKARA6649, 2004-12-01.
(5) Embassy Astana, April 2009, ID 09ASTANA660, 2009-04-17.
(6) Embassy Asuncion (Paraguay), January 2008, ID 08ASUNCION62, 2008-01-29.
(7) Embassy Astana, November 2008, ID 08ASTANA2352, 2008-11-26.
(8) Embassy Baku, November 2009, ID 09BAKU918, 2009-11-25.
(9) Embassy Dhaka, November 2009, ID 09DHAKA1014, 2009-11-03.
(10) U.S. Interests Section Havana, December 2008, O8HAVANA952, 2008-12-24.
(11) Embassy Dhaka, November 2007, 07DHAKA1785, 2007-11-13.
(12) Embassy Santo Domingo, November 2003, 03SANTODOMINGO6906, 2003-11-28.
(13) Embassy Dushanbe, December 2006, 06DUSHANBE2191, 2006-12-07.
(14) Embassy Dushanbe, December 2009, 09DUSHANBE1454, 2009-12-24.
(15) Embassy Helsinki, November 2009, 09HELSINKI1429, 2009-11-16.
(16) Consulate Kolkata, January 2008, 08KOLKATA22, 2008-01-18.
(17) Embassy Berlin, May 2008, 08BERLIN685, 2008-05-22.
(18) Embassy Baghdad, April 2009, 09BAGHDAD1106, 2009-04-24.
(19) Embassy Baghdad, August 2008, 08BAGHDAD2724, 2008-08-25.
(20) Embassy Tel Aviv, December 2004, 04TELAVIV6197, 2004-12-07.
(21) Embassy Kabul, April 2007, 07KABUL1412, 2007-04-25.
(22) Embassy Astana, October 2008, 08ASTANA2079, 2008-10-20.
(23) Embassy Astana, December 2008, 08ASTANA2380, 2008-12-02.
(24) Embassy Pristina, January 2007, 07PRISTINA21, 2007-01-10.
(25) Embassy Kuwait, September 2009, 2009-09-15.
(26) Embassy Kuwait, December 2006, 06KUWAIT4562, 2006-12-04.
(27) Embassy Lima, March 2008, 08LIMA398, 2008-03-06.
(28) Embassy Lima, August 2005, 05LIMA3419, 2005-08-09.
(29) Secretary of State, 09STATE32018, 2009-04-02.
(30) Embassy Nairobi, January 2009, 09NAIROBI12, 2009-01-02.
(31) Embassy San Salvador, September 2009, 06SANSALVADOR2267, 2006-09-14.
(32) Embassy Port of Spain, April 2006, 06PORTOFSPAIN445, 2006-04-10.
(33) Embassy Tashkent, April 2006, 06TASHKENT777, 2006-04-21.
(34) Embassy Tashkent, December 2008, 08TASHKENT1471, 2008-12-17.
(35) Embassy Tashkent, April 2009, 09TASHKENT437, 2009-04-03.
(36) Embassy Ashgabat, January 2010, 10ASHGABAT94, 2010-01-20.
(37) Embassy Tashkent, February 2009, 09TASHKENT220, 2009-02-26.
(38) Embassy Tashkent, November 2009, 09TASHKENT1958, 2009-11-03.
(39) Embassy Tashkent, October 2010, 08TASHKENT1218, 2008-10-21.
(40) Embassy Honduras, March 2005, 05TEGUCIGALPA540, 2005-03-10.
(41) Embassy Astana, December 2009, 09ASTANA2196, 2009-12-22.
(42) Embassy Astana, October 2009, 09ASTANA1768, 2009-10-02.
(43) Embassy Manila, March 2005, 05MANILA1199, 2005-03-15.
(44) Embassy Manila, October 2006, 06MANILA4396, 2006-10-18.
(45) Embassy Panama, December 2005, 05PANAMA2375, 2005-12-07.
(46) Embassy Asuncion, April 2005, 05ASUNCION488, 2005-04-11.
(47) Embassy Bucharest, July 2005, 05BUCHAREST510, 2005-07-07.
(48) Embassy Santo Domingo, November 2006, 06SANTODOMINGO3438, 2006-11-03.
(49) Embassy Santo Domingo, February 2010, 10SANTODOMINGO226, 2010-02-10.
(50) Embassy Port of Spain, August 2007, 07PORTOFSPAIN786, 2007-08-09.
(51) Embassy Port of Spain, February 2010, 10PORTOFSPAIN136, 2010-02-01.

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